Posted by: pkab | 7 June 2008

HyperPhysics


By: C.R. Nave

Hyper Physic

Rationale for Development

HyperPhysics is an exploration environment for concepts in physics which employs concept maps and other linking strategies to facilitate smooth navigation. For the most part, it is laid out in small segments or “cards”, true to its original development in HyperCard. The entire environment is interconnected with thousands of links, reminiscent of a neural network. The bottom bar of each card contains links to major concept maps for divisions of physics, plus a “go back” feature to allow you to retrace the path of an exploration. The side bar contains a link to the extensive Index, which itself is composed of active links. That sidebar also contains links to relevant concept maps. The rationale for such concept maps is to provide a visual survey of conceptually connected material, and it is hoped that they will provide some answers to the question “where do I go from here?”. Whether you need further explanation of concepts which underly the current card content, or are seeking applications which go beyond it, the concept map may help you find the desired information.

Part of the intent for this exploration environment is to provide many opportunities for numerical exploration in the form of active formuli and standard problems implemented in Javascript. An active exploration in physics will typically lead you to something which needs to be quantified, and it is hoped that the many Javascript-enabled calculations will provide many opportunities to answer “What if ..” type questions.

Mechanics Concept Map

New content for HyperPhysics will be posted as it is developed. The intent is to maintain the entire HyperPhysics project on the Web with stable locations so that links to it may be established with confidence that they will be there for an extended period of time. As the basic phase nears completion, the author is interested in extensions to specific applied areas. If you are interested in developing specific material for a specialized course, you might consider building it upon this framework with links to HyperPhysics to provide the basic conceptual background. The entire HyperPhysics project can be made available on a cross-platform CD ROM since it will remain compatible with the standard web browsers.

Visit HyperPhysics to interact with it.


Index of HyperPhysics

* acceleration
* absorption, quantum
*adhesion
*admittance
* air, constituents
* air friction
* airbag
* airfoil
* airplane in wind
* albedo
* algebra
* Alpha Centauri
* alpha particle
* alveoli of lungs
* AM radio
* angular acceleration
* angular displacement
* angular momentum
* angular momentum, quantized
* angular velocity
* Archimedes’ principle
* arctangent problem
* aspirator
* astronomical unit
* asymptotic freedom
* atmosphere, constituents
* atmospheric pressure
* atomic clock
* atomic mass unit
* Atwood’s machine
* aurora
* auto hydraulic lift
* Avogadro’s number
* background radiation, 3K
* bag model, quarks
* ballistic pendulum
* band theory, solids
*bandwidth
* Barnard’s Star
* barometer
* barometric formula
*barrier penetration
*baryons
* baseball curve
*beat frequency
*Bequerel (unit)
* Bernoulli principle
* beta radioactivity
* bicycle wheel precession
*bimetallic strip
*binding energy, nuclear
* binomial distribution
* binomial expansion
* Biot-Savart law
* birefringence
* blackbody radiation
* black hole
* boat in current
* Bohr magneton
* Bohr model
* boiling point
* boiling water reactor
*Boltzmann distribution
* Boltzmann’s constant
* bond, chemical
* boomerang
*Bose-Einstein condensation
*Bose-Einstein statistics
*bosons
*Boyle’s Law
* brakes, hydraulic
* Bragg’s law
* Bragg spectrometer
* breeder reactor
* brehmsstrahlung radiation
* bulk modulus
* bullet drop
* buoyancy
* calcite
* calculus
* calorie
* calorimeter
* capillary action
* capacitor
* carbon dating
* cartesian coordinates
* Cartesian sign convention
* cartesian diver
*carrier wave
* cavity radiation
* car crash example
* Carnot cycle
* celestial sphere
* center of mass
* centrifugal force
* centripetal force
* cesium-137
*Chandrasekhar limit
*charge, electric
*Charles’ Law
*charm quark
*Chernobyl
* circular motion
*cobalt-60
*COBE satellite
*cochlea
*coherent light
*cohesion
*collisions
*color force
*compact disc,audio
* complex numbers
* Compton scattering
* Compton wavelength
* conduction heat transfer
* conductor, electric
* conjugate points, lens
* conservation laws
* conservation of angular momentum
*conservation of energy
*conservation of momentum
*conservative force
*convection
*Cooper pairs
*coriolis force
*correspondence principle
*cosmic background radiation
*cosmic rays
*Coulomb barrier
*Coulomb’s law
*covalent bond
*cosmological constant
*Crab Nebula
*cross section, nuclear reaction
*cross section, scattering
*crossover network
*crushing Coke can
*crushing steel drum
*Curie temperature
*Curie (unit)
*curl
*current, electric
*current law
*cyclotron
*cylindrical polar coordinates
*Cygnus X-1
*Davisson- Germer experiment
*DeBroglie wavelength
*decibels
*declination
*del operator
*density
*derivative
*determinant
*deuterium-tritium fusion
*dewpoint
*diamagnetism
*dielectric
*differential equations
*diffraction grating
*diffraction, sound
*diffusion
*digital delay
*dipole, electric
*displacement
*distance relationship
*divergence
*doping of semiconductors
*Doppler effect
*Doppler effect, relativistic
*down quark
*Dulong and Petit, Law of
*dye laser
*eclipse, lunar
*eclipse, solar
*ecliptic plane
*Einstein-Bose condensation
*Einstein equation
*Einstein velocity addition
*ear
*eardrum
*elastic collision
*elastic potential energy
*elasticity
*electric current
*electric field
*electric guitar
*electric potential energy
*electric shock
*electrolysis
*electromagnet
*electromagnetic force
*electromagnetic spectrum
*electromagnetic waves
*electron
*electron affinity
*electron capture
*electron spin
*electron volt
*electronegativity
*electroweak unification
* emission, quantum
*emission, stimulated
*emphysema
*energy
*enthalpy
*entropy
*equilibrium
*equinox
*equipartition of energy
*escape velocity
*Euler relationship
*evaporation
*event horizon
*exchange forces
*exponents
*Fabry-Perot
*Faraday’s law
* fast breeder reactor
*Fermat’s principle
*Fermi-Dirac statistics
*Fermi level
*fermions
*ferromagnetism
*Feynman diagrams
*Fick’s Law
*first law of thermodynamics
*fluids
*fluid pressure
*fluorescent light
*flux, electric
*flux, magnetic
*FM radio
*focal length
*force
*forces, fundamental
*Fourier analysis
*Fourier series
*Franck-Hertz experiment
*free body diagram
*freefall
*Fresnel lens
*friction
*friction, rolling
*Friedmann equation
*fuel cell
*fundamental forces
*g-factor, electron spin
*galvanometer
*gamma radioactivity
*gamma-rays
*Galilean transformation
*gas constant
*Gauge pressure
* Gauss (Unit)
* Gauss’ law
* Gaussian distribution
* Gaussian surface
*geometry
*Gibbs free energy
*Global Positioning System
*global warming
*gluon
*gradient
*Graham’s Law
*grand unification
*gravitational lens
*gravitational potential energy
*gravity
*gravity-assist orbit
*Gray (unit)
*greenhouse effect
*Gullstrand’s equation
*gyroscope
*hadrons
*half-life
*Hall effect
*Hall probe
*harmonic oscillator
*harmonic oscillator, quantum
*heat
*heat of fusion
*heat of vaporization
*heat transfer
*helium, liquid
*helium-neon laser
*Helmholtz free energy
*Henry’s Law
*Hermite polynomials
*Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
*Heterodyne principle
*Hooke’s Law
*holography
* Hubble constant
* Hubble law
* hydraulic brakes
*hydraulic press
*hydrogen radial probability
*hydrogen spectrum
*hyperbolic functions
*hypercharge
*hysteresis
* Iceland spar
*ideal gas law
*image formation
*images, real
*images, virtual
*impedance
*impulse of force
*index of refraction
*inductance
*inelastic collision
*infrared
* insulator, electric
*internal energy
*inertia
*integral
*intensity, sound
*interference, sound
*intermediate vector bosons
*internal energy
*inverse square law
* iodine-131
*ionic bond
*ionization energy
*ionizing radiation
*IRAS satellite
*isolated system
*isotopes
*isospin
*Josephson junction
*Jupiter effect
*Kepler’s laws
*kinetic energy
*kinetic energy, rotational
*kinetic theory
*Lamb shift
*laminar flow
*Lande’ g-factor
*LaPlace’s equation
*LaPlace’s law
*LaPlacian
*laser
*Law of cosines
*Law of sines
*lens equation
*lenses
*Lenz’s law
*lepton
*lever arm
*lightning
*light, speed of
*limits in calculus
*line equation
*linear algebra
*liquid helium
*logarithms
*longitudinal waves
*Lorentz force law
*Lorentz transformation
*loudness
*loudspeaker
* lungs, alveoli of
*Madgeburg hemispheres
*magnetic confinement
*magnetic field
*magnetic force
*magnetic moment
*magneto- hydrodynamics
*magnetostrictive effect
*magnitude of star
*main sequence of stars
*manometer
*Mariner spacecraft
*mass
*mass energy
*mass, reduced
*mass spectrometer
*Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics
*Maxwell distribution
*mean free path
*Meissner effect
*mercury barometer
*mesons
*Michelson- Morley experiment
*microphone
*microwaves
*missing fundamental effect
*mole
*moment of inertia
*momentum
*Moseley plot
*Mossbauer effect
*motor
*motor, induction
*Mpemba effect
*muon
*n-type semiconductor
*neutrino
*Newton’s laws
*neutron
*neutron degeneracy
*neutron star
*Newton’s first law
*Newton’s second law
*Newton’s second law for rotation
*Newton’s third law
*Norton’s theorem
*nuclear binding energy
*Ohm’s law
*orbit, circular
*orbit concepts
*orbit velocity
*orbital angular momentum
*orbital quantum number
*organ of Corti
*oscillator, simple harmonic
*oscillator, damped
*oscillator, driven
*osmosis
*ossicles
*overtones
*p-n junction
*p-type semiconductor
*pair production
*parallel axis theorem
*parallax
*paramagnetism
*parity
*parsec
*Pascal’s principle
*Pauli exclusion principle
*pendulum
*pendulum, physical
*periodic motion
*permeability
*permittivity
*perpendicular axis theorem
*PET scan
*phase change
*phase, AC circuits
*phasor diagram
*phon
*photoelectric effect
*photon
*photon energy
*photon sphere
*piezoelectric effect
*pink noise
*pion
*pitch
*place theory
*Planck radiation formula
*Planck’s hypothesis
*Poiseuille’s law
* Poisson distribution
*Poisson’s equation
* Population I & II stars
*position
*positron
*positron annihilation
*Potential energy
*Potential energy, gravity
*power
*power, electric
*power factor
*Poynting vector
*precession
*pressure
*pressure of fluid
* pressurized water reactor
*primary colors
*principal axes
*principal quantum number
*principle of equivalence
*proton
*proton-proton fusion
*pulsar
*Psi/J particle
*quadratic formula
*quality, sound
*quantum energy
*quantum numbers, atomic
*quantum statistics
* quarks
*quark confinement
*quarter-wave plate
*quasar
*rad (unit)
*radar, police
*radiation effects
*radiation heat transfer
*radiation risk
* radio, AM
* radio, FM
*radioactive half-life
*radioactive dating
*radioactivity
*radon
*Rayleigh criterion
*Rayleigh-Jeans law
*right hand rule, torque
*red shift
*red giant star
*red supergiant star
*reduced mass
*reflection, sound
*refraction, light
*refraction, sound
*refrigerator
*relative humidity
*relativity
*relativistic energy
*relativistic mass
*relativistic momentum
*rem (unit)
*resonance, electric
*resonant frequency
*resistance
*resistivity
*respiration
*rest mass energy
*reverberation
*reverberation time
*Reynold’s number
*right ascension
*right hand rule
*right triangle relationships
*Rijke tube
*rms current
*rms voltage
*rocket
*Roentgen (unit)
*rotation equations
*rotational motion
*rotational inertia
*Rutherford scattering
*Sabine formula
*Savery engine
*scalar product
*scanning tunneling microscope
*Schrodinger equation
*Schwarzschild radius
*seatbelt function
*selection rules
*semicircular canals
*semiconductor
*Seyfert galaxies
*shock, electric
*Sievert (unit)
*sideband
*simple harmonic motion
*sinusoidal waves
*slingshot orbit
*smoking and the lungs
*sodium doublet
*SOHO satellite
*solar wind
*solenoid
*solstice
*sound intensity
*sound pressure
*sound speed
*specific heat
*speed of light
*speed of sound
*spherical polar coordinates
*spectroscopic notation
*spin, electron
*spin g-factor
*spin-orbit interaction
*spring potential energy
*spontaneous symmetry breaking
*SQUID magnetometer
*standing waves
*star spectral types
*state variables
*Stefan- Boltzmann law
*stimulated emission
*strange quark
*string instruments
*string vibration
*strong force
* strontium-90
*subjective tone
*Sun
*superconductivity
*superfluid
*supernova
*surface tension
*surfactant fluid
*synchrotron radiation
*syncom satellite
*tape recording
*tau lepton
*telephone tones
*temperature
*temperature scales
*terminal velocity
* Tesla (Unit)
*thermal energy
*thermodynamics, first law
*thermodynamics, second law
*thermodynamics, zeroth law
*Thevenin’s theorem
*tides
*time dilation
*time’s arrow
*timpani
*top quark
*torque
*torque vector
*top precession
*totalitarian principle
*trajectories
*transparency of a medium
*transverse waves
*trig functions
*trigonometry
*tunneling
*turbulent flow
*ultrasonic sound
*ultraviolet
*uncertainty principle
*unit vectors
*units
*up quark
*upsilon particle
*uranium-235 fission
*valence electrons
*van Allen Belts
*van de Graaff generator
*vapor pressure
*vector bosons
*vector sum
*vector product
*vectors
*velocity
*velocity, relative
*velocity, terminal
*vectors, scalar product of
*vergence
*viscosity
*viscous resistance
*visible light
*voltage
*voltage divider
*voltage law
*W particle
*wall tension
*warming, global
*wavefunction
*waves, electromagnetic
*waves on ocean
*weak interaction
*weight
*weightlessness
*white dwarf star
*white noise
*Wien displacement law
*Wollaston prism
*work
*work-energy principle
*x-rays
* Young’s modulus
*Z particle
* Zeeman effect


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