Posted by: pkab | 6 May 2009

Cara Belajar Lebih Banyak dengan Menghafal Lebih Sedikit


Holistic Learning (Digambar oleh Miguel de Luis Espinosa)

Holistic Learning (Digambar oleh Miguel de Luis Espinosa)

Cara membaca sebuah peta konsep atau peta pikiran adalah dari arah jam 1 searah jarum jam ke arah jam 11.

Ditulis oleh: Scott Young

Time spent studying does not equal learning.

More studying time won’t help if the way you are studying is flawed to begin with.

Holistic Learning
Smart people don’t just learn better. They learn differently. While many students get caught up in memorizing facts, intelligent learners know to seek the bigger picture and connect the facts together. This form of learning I call holistic learning.

Holistic learning is basically the opposite of rote memorization. Instead of reciting lists of facts, rules or formulas, you seek to connect ideas together. Instead of having separate boxes in your head for geometry, algebra or ancient India, you deliberately link facts together, so they form a bigger picture.

Excessive studying shows you aren’t learning holistically. It shows that you didn’t learn the material the first time. If you properly link ideas together to see the bigger picture, studying should only be a brief refresher.

How to Boost Your Study Habits
Holistic learning isn’t like a brainstorming technique or mind-mapping. It is fundamentally changing how you look at the process of learning and how you absorb information. As such, there isn’t an easy ten step program to master it.

But there are some tools that can help you shift your learning habits so they become more holistic:

  1. Visceralize – You’ve probably heard of visualizing, right? Visceralizing means taking all of your senses and connecting it to information. Studies have shown that people remember more vividly information that comes to us in an emotionally aroused state. Linking feelings, senses and imagery to bland ideas makes them more real. You probably counted on your fingers when learning numbers, why can’t you do the same when you are learning now?
  2. Metaphor - The heart of holistic learning is relating things together. Metaphors are literary devices that link two things that normally don’t go together. Come up with metaphors to describe more complicated ideas in simpler terms.
  3. Ten Year Old Rule – Explain ideas to yourself as you would to a ten year old. Sure, this isn’t always possible in your last years of a medical degree or learning how to apply neural networks to computer AI. But the idea is that you should be able to “dumb down” an idea enough so it seems obvious to yourself.
  4. Trace Back – Put away your books and start with a random fact or concept. Then relate that idea to another concept in your subject. Keep doing this tracing pattern until you’ve linked many ideas together. The Gupta Dynasty reminds you of ancient Greece which reminds you of Socrates, reminding you of Confucius…
  5. Refresher Scan – Scan through information in your text book. Notice whenever you encounter information that you either don’t remember or weren’t 100% sure about. Quickly link that information back to existing ideas through viscerlization and metaphor. If your refresher scan is turning up more than a few points per chapter, you haven’t learned it thoroughly enough.
  6. Compress Information – Not all information works well for holistic learning. A common point cited to me is learning anatomy for first year medical students. Anatomy involves learning arbitrary Latin names for hundreds of different elements of your body. There often aren’t clear patterns and constructs, just a dry list of facts. When encountering information such as this, your goal should be to compress it. Find ways to group information into smaller chunks of memory through pictures or mnemonics.
  7. Write – Take a piece of paper and write out the connections in the information. Reorganize the information into different patterns. The key here is the writing, not the final product. So don’t waste your time making a pretty picture. Scribble and use abbreviations to link the ideas together.

Sumber gambar Wisdom and Life.

Sumber tulisan (lebih lengkap): Zen Habits

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Responses

  1. [...] pkab created an interesting post today on Cara Belajar Lebih Banyak dengan Menghafal Lebih Sedikit …Here’s a short outlineInstead of reciting lists of facts, rules or formulas, you seek to connect ideas together. Instead of having separate boxes in your head for geometry, algebra or ancient India, you deliberately link facts together, so they form a bigger picture. … The Gupta Dynasty reminds you of ancient Greece which reminds you of Socrates, reminding you of Confucius… Refresher Scan – Scan through information in your text book. Notice whenever you encounter information that you either … [...]

  2. Bagus banget tuh mindmap. Layak dibiasakan. Punya tips nggak biar kitanya terbiasa ber-mindmap?

    Makasih om

  3. @Ammartya: coba membuat ringkasan dari sebuah bab / topik, misal: sistem percernaan. Itu dijadikan centrum (topik yang berada di pusat). Dari situ dibuatkan dahan-dahan besarnya (dalam istilah mind map disebut Body of Interest atau B.O.I) seperti: Mulut, Lambung, Usus. Dari dahan Mulut dibuat ranting-rantingnya lagi, seperti: fungsi gigi, air ludah, dll. Dari dahan Lambung diperinci menjadi: enzim-enzim yang dikeluarkan namanya apa dan fungsinya apa. Di bagian usus: ada usus besar, halus, 12 jari, buntu, dll.

    Setelah itu berikan gambar-gambar sebagai asosiasi. Gambar mulut dengan gigi2nya, Lambung, Usus, dll.

    Gunakan warna yang berbeda untuk tiap dahan yang berbeda untuk membantu daya ingat dengan memanfaatkan fungsi otak kanan, yaitu warna, gambar, lokasi.

    Terus ketika mencoba menghafalnya kamu ceritakan dari berbagai arah dan sudut, misalnya dari ranting menuju dahan atau dari dahan menuju ranting.

    Coba juga kamu gambar ulang mind map di kertas yang terpisah dan polos tanpa melihat mind map yang pertama. Bandingkan apakah ada yang tertinggal. Dalam menggambar mind map yang kedua tidak perlu berurutan munculnya cabang/ dahannya. Itulah kemampuan random otak kanan, ia akan mencoba untuk me-recall/ mengingat dengan bantuan asosiasi (gambar, warna, ranting2 yang se-sibling, misal: kalau bicara pepsin dan rennin akan membantu untuk mengingat si lipase).

    Selamat belajar dengan mind map. Kalau sudah bisa, kamu teriakkan: Aku paham dan bisa! Dan bagikan kemampuanmu ini kepada teman-teman yang lain. Ok?


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