Posted by: pkab | 7 May 2008

Strategies for Learning – from Concept Maps to Learning Objects and Books to Wooks


By: Dr. Jack Yensen
Editor-in-Charge of eLearning

This is the first of a series of 4 linked articles that attempts to construct some strategies for learning. This, the first article, describes concept maps, and illustrates how to construct them and how to use them. The articles that follow will be organized as shown below:

  • Concept Resource Maps
    • What are they and how do I use them
    • How do I find resources quickly and easily
    • JITROD Strategy (Just In Time Resources On Demand)
    • Using a JITROD template
  • Learning Objects
    • What are they and how do I use them
    • How do I assemble a learning object
    • How do I use objects
  • Books to Wooks
    • A brief journey from Gutenberg to 2002
    • An example of a Wook

Given sufficient interest, it is the intent of the author to build a set of CE courses to address each of these articles. Any person completing these courses should be able to design, build, deploy and manage concept maps, concept resource maps, learning objects and wooks.

Concept Maps

What are they and how do they work

A concept map is a visual (graphic) representation of the relationships between one or more concepts. Trochim(1) suggests:

concept mapping is a structured process, focused on a topic or construct of interest, involving input from one or more participants, that produces an interpretable pictorial view (concept map) of their ideas and concepts and how these are interrelated.”

One of the early writers on concept maps was Joseph D. Novak of Cornell University. In the 1960s he taught about and published some of the first concept maps. There are some excellent examples of his concept maps at the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, including a summary(2) of some of his ideas. Here is a one of his concept maps about concept mapping.

Here is a concept map about the mechanism of action of propranolol.

The visual map allows rapid inspection of relationships between concepts, both from the perspective of context and propositional logic, i.e. the ideas linking adjacent concepts. There are a number of advantages to concept mapping that transcend the sometimes linear ways we may think about concepts. Concept maps allow for clustering or contextual organizing according to themes or attributes. It is possible to discern overlaps or commonalities between concept maps from different disciplines, which allows for cross-disciplinary enrichment. Concept maps allow the generation of multiple ways of constructing meaning, which promotes transfer and learning for practitioners and students alike. From a learning standpoint, a concept map can suggest instructional strategies, including choice of media, since the propositional logic connecting concepts will determine the level of abstraction and hence the degree of assimilative difficulty for the learner. Hence the more abstract the logic, the greater attention needs to be paid to the principles of higher order learning. Highly abstract concept maps may be used as meta maps linking to subordinate maps, which drill down to greater levels of granularity and specification. Here is an example of a simple meta map for pain:

If we click on the concept of acute pain, we could see a drill down to a possible etiologies map. Here is the etiologies map in a more detailed outline form to show a greater level of granularity and specificity:

  • Somatogenic (has characteristics like)
    • bodily origins (may be)
      • visceral
      • neurogenic
      • referred
      • body system or area (may be)
        • facial
        • headache
        • bone
        • pelvic
        • ear
        • tooth
        • and so on for other systems……
    • mechanisms
    • pain pathways
    • experience of pain
      • perception thresholds
      • tolerance thresholds
      • Dame Cicely Saunders model
        • physical
        • psychological
        • spiritual
        • social
      • influence of age
        • elderly
        • children
      • gender
      • state and trait anxiety
      • past experience with pain
      • presence of chronic pain
      • influence of culture
      • influence of comorbidity
      • substance abusers
      • persons with shock, trauma or burns
      • persons with aphasia
      • persons who cannot speak the caregiver’s language
      • persons with AIDS
      • persons with psychiatric disorders
      • persons in palliative care
    • self assessment
      • estimation by verbal description
      • analog scales (are)
        • visual
        • numeric
        • graphic
    • nursing (other) assessment
      • PCA titers
      • CADD titers
      • flow sheet analysis
    • nursing (other) management (may be divided into)
      • pharmacological (can involve)
        • undertreatment
        • prescription drugs
          • narcotic analgesics
            • classification
            • indications
            • delivery
              • oral
              • parenteral
                • SC CADD
                • IV PCA
                  • criteria for starting
                  • criteria for discontinuing
            • pharmacokinetics
            • pharmacodynamics
            • contraindications and precautions
            • adverse and side effects
            • drug drug interactions
          • non-narcotic analgesics
            • classification
          • anesthesia
            • regional
            • local
            • epidural
              • PCEA
            • subarachnoid
          • adjuvants
            • corticosteroids
            • antidepressants
            • anticonvulsants
            • antidysrhythmics
            • antihistamines
            • calcitonin
            • spasmolytics
            • neuroleptics
              • olanzapine
      • non pharmacological
        • distraction
        • TENS
        • hypnosis
          • self
          • other
        • guided imagery
        • biofeedback
        • aquatic therapy
        • spinal implantation for electrical stimulation
        • relaxation
        • meditation
        • acupuncture
        • acupressure
      • clinical guidelines
        • WHO steps
          • other analgesic ladders or step protocols
        • APS guidelines
        • AHCPR guidelines
    • self management
      • pharmacological
        • non-prescription drugs
        • OTC drugs
        • illicit drugs
        • herbal remedies
        • alcohol
      • non pharmacological
        • distraction
        • lying down/resting/trying to sleep
        • relaxation/breathing techniques
        • heat treatments e.g. hot water bottles, heat pads, warm baths
        • acupressure
  • Psychogenic
    • mechanisms
    • exogenous triggers
    • endogenous triggers
    • experience of pain
    • pain of loss
    • depression
  • Procedural
  • Traumatic

Any concept or set of concepts may be mapped in this fashion to aid in organizing, constructing and deconstructing of knowledge.

How do I construct them?

There are many examples of software that can be used to design and build concept maps quickly and easily, each with their own advantages and limitations. Some of the software I have used and still use includes:

Mind Manager Enterprise Edition $269 (Sur comments –> Mind Manager Pro 7 series now is $ 349. Jack mention Mindmanager 2002 series)
Inspiration $129
CMap free
The Brain $79.95 Personal Edition

Here are some examples of concept maps built using each type of software.

Mind Manager

This allows quick and easy brainstorming and collaboration within groups, physically co-located or virtually linked. It will import and export from MS Office and allows direct importing of outlines, if you enjoy using a word processor outlining tool to develop your concept maps. Here is an example of a concept map developed in a few minutes using Mind Manager:

Here is the CMap version of the same map:

How do I use them?

As an instructor in a nursing program, I use concept mapping to help me design and construct new courses, and new modules within courses. In a recent curriculum change, it was advantageous to map the entire curriculum and examine the courses and course concepts within the context of the academic year as well as within the context of each other. I was able to tell at a glance where themes and continuities existed, and could see where redundancies and omissions occurred. It is invaluable for curriculum development and implementation. For actual course work, I use maps to explore and develop concepts and ask students to generate their own concept maps. This has lead to very creative productivity – in once case a Jade plant representing the concept domain for diabetes, with each stem bifurcation being labelled and representing with each new layer of leaves a new set of child or sibling concepts for diabetes. Such exercises may be used as in class activities or as small group assignments. The students always enjoy mapping and often state that they have developed a new appreciation for the subject matter.

Concept mapping can be used by small groups to facilitate problem solving, project planning, evalution and management, curriculum development, human resource management, organizational development, product and business development, process flow charting, and as a template for the systematic mining and management of resources. This is known as concept resource mapping and will form the basis of the next article.

Footnotes

(1) William M K Trochim. (2002). Concept Mapping (Concept Mapping). Retrieved 12/05/02, from http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/kb/conmap.htm.

(2) Joseph D Novak. (2001). IHMC Concept Map Software (Concept Mapping). Retrieved 12/05/02, from http://cmap.coginst.uwf.edu/info/.

References

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Beitz, J. (1998, Sep-Oct.). Concept mapping. Navigating the learning process. Nurse Educator., 23(5), 35-41.


Caelli, K. (1998, May). Shared understandings: Negotiating the meanings of health via concept mapping. Nurse Education Today., 18(4), 317-21.


Chastonay, P., Papart, J., Laporte, J., Praplan, G., Brenner, E., Walker, F., et al. (1999). Use of concept mapping to define learning objectives in a master of public health program. Teaching & Learning in Medicine., 11(1), 21-25.


Daley, B. (1996, Jan-Feb.). Concept maps: Linking nursing theory to clinical nursing practice. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing., 27(1), 17-27.


Daley, B., Shaw, C., Balistrieri, T., Glasenapp, K., & Piacentine, L. (1999, Jan). Concept maps: A strategy to teach and evaluate critical thinking. Journal of Nursing Education., 38(1), 42-7.


Dennis, R. A. (1999, Mar). The effects of feedback cues, relevant information, and scoring procedures on concept mapping performance. Dissertation Abstracts International, A (Humanities and Social Sciences), 59(9-A), 3346.


Downey, S. E. (2001, Jan). University students’ perceptions, interpretations, and preferences regarding two-dimensional and three-dimensional concept mapping. Dissertation Abstracts International, A (Humanities and Social Sciences), 62(6-A), 2082.
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Eitel, F., Kanz, K., Hortig, E., & Tesche, A. (2000, Aug). Do we face a fourth paradigm shift in medicine–algorithms in education?. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice., 6(3), 321-33.


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Jacobs-Lawson, J. M., Hershey, D. A., e, M., & hershey@okstate, e. (2002, Feb). Concept maps as an assessment tool in psychology courses. Teaching of Psychology., 29(1), 25-29.


Jo, I. H. (2001, Oct). The effects of concept mapping on college students’ comprehension of expository text. Dissertation Abstracts International, A (Humanities and Social Sciences), 62(4-A), 1313.


Keith, D. (1989). Refining concept maps: Methodological issues and an example. Evaluation & Program Planning., 12(1), 75-80.
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Markow, P. G., & Lonning, R. A. (1998, Nov). Usefulness of concept maps in college chemistry laboratories: Students’ perceptions and effects on achievement. Journal of Research in Science Teaching., 35(9), 1015-1029.


McClure, J. R., Sonak, B., & Suen, H. K. (1999, Apr). Concept map assessment of classroom learning: Reliability, validity, and logistical practicality. Journal of Research in Science Teaching., 36(4), 475-492.


McGaghie, W., McCrimmon, D., Mitchell, G., Thompson, J., & Ravitch, M. (2000, Jun). Quantitative concept mapping in pulmonary physiology: Comparison of student and faculty knowledge structures. Advances in Physiology Education., 23(1), 72-81.


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Suen, H. K., Sonak, B., Zimmaro, D., & Roberts, D. M. (1997, Dec). Concept map as scaffolding for authentic assessment. Psychological Reports., 81(3, Pt 1), 734.


Trochim, W. M. K. (2001) Concept Mapping: Soft Science or Hard Art? Retrieved 12/05/02, from http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/research/epp2/epp2.htm


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Weiss, L., & Levison, S. (2000, Nov). Tools for integrating women’s health into medical education: Clinical cases and concept mapping. Academic Medicine., 75(11), 1081-6.

Wells, F. B. (1999, Jan). The effect of the use of concept maps on community college students’ conceptual understanding of biology course content. Dissertation Abstracts International, A (Humanities and Social Sciences), 59(7-A), 2433.

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Source: Educational Advancement Associate

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Responses

  1. Ingat Miller’s Magic Number 7+/-2 (baca: tujuh plus minus dua), artinya otak kita hanya mampu mengolah 5 sampai 9 topik suatu saat. Sehingga kalau seseorang (terutama siswa) diminta menghafal daftar panjang dalam bentuk list (bullet point) seperti contoh di atas, ia bisa “mati berdiri” (atau stress berat).
    Coba baca posting tentang Memory

    Sehingga cara belajarnya perlu dibantu dengan Peta Konsep, sehingga informasi sebanyak itu bisa dimanage lebih baik, karena ketika ia melihat sebuah cabang Pharmacological (misalnya) maka ia cukup fokus dan menghafal sub cabang di daerah itu, yaitu: undertreatment dan prescription drugs saja.

    Kemudian di cabang Prescription Drugs itu dipecah lagi menjadi: narcotic analgesics, non- narcotic analgesics, anesthesia, adjuvants.

    Demikian seterusnya ketika ia sampai pada ADJUVANTS: corticosteroids, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, antidysrhythmics, antihistamines, calcitonin, spasmolytics, neuroleptics. Yang jumlahnya hanya 8 topik di ADJUVANTS.

    Apalagi bila cabang-cabang itu diberi Gambar Kunci, sehigga dengan melihat gambar itu maka otak kanannya langsung bekerja dan meng-ASOSIASI-kannya dengan sub-sub topiknya.


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